The SNOT instrument was originally  written in the English language and has been translated to over 70 languages. If a translation is not yet available, then please inquire at as new translations are in progress.

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If an additional language translation is needed, the rights to perform this translation are given in our licensing agreement along with a detailed translation procedure. 

Translation procedure

Generally, the steps are

  1. Licensee finds a vendor to perform the translation
  2. Vendor performs a forward-backwards translation of the tool
  3. Licensee provides the translated work with the backwards translation to Washington University for approval
  4. Licensee provides the final translation copy and translation certificate to Washington University

Translation resources

Vaitkus S, Padervinskis E, Balsevicius T, Siupsinskiene N, Staikuniene J, Ryskiene S,
Lisauskaite L, Vaitkus J. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT)-22 for Lithuanian patients. European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology. 2013; 270: 1843 – 1848.
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Baumann, Blumenstock G, DeMaddalena H, Piccirillo J, Plinkert P. Lebensqualität bei Patienten mit chronischer Rhinosinusitis Validierung des Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20 German Adapted Version. HNO. 2007; 55: 42–47.
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Koller M, Aaronson N, Blazeby J, Bottomley A, Dewolf L, Fayers P, Johnson C, Ramage J, Scott N, West K. Translation procedures for standardised quality of life questionnaires: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) approach. European Journal of Cancer. 2007; 43: 1810 – 1820.
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Guillemin F, Bombardier C, Beaton D. Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: Literature review and proposed guidelines. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1993; 46(12): 1417-1432.
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